I have not thought of doing an online course in my current teaching job, but I have participated in many online courses as a student, both in what Bates (2016) calls fully online courses and blended learning courses. What, however, would be important for me to think about, whether my prefect would ask me to convert one of my face-to-face courses to an online course? Bates (2016) points out that the main questions I have to ask myself are, where on the continuum of teaching my course should be and on what basis I should make that decision? And in any form of blended learning, how do I decide what is best done online, and what is best done face-to-face? Because online students work in different contexts and have different needs to students in face-to-face classes, you shouldn’t merely transport classroom teaching to an online environment (Bates, 2016).
There are several online course designs that can help you as a teacher when implementing e-learning. One design model that you could use for oneline learning is the five-phase instructional model ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL20E84CD77B301A20). ADDIE has become successful, but the limitations with this model are that it is too pre-determined, linear, inflexible and works best with large and complex projects. Applied to courses with small student numbers and a deliberately simple or traditional classroom design, it becomes expensive and possibly redundant (Bates, 2015).
Another design model is Gilly Salmo´s five-stage- model, which offers support and development to the participants at each of the stages: access and motivation, online socialisation, information and exchange, knowledge construction and development (http://www.gillysalmon.com/five-stage-model.html). According to studies by the Institute of Learning Innovation at the University of Leicester (http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/beyond-distance-research-alliance/unpublished-content/learning-futures-academy/research-to-practice-models) the basic structure of the five-stage-model appears to hold good, but the potential at each stage is slightly different and there is no need to separate the activities that support learning to benefit from using the technological platform from those needed to undertake course-related tasks and establishing a constructive learning group.
McLoughlin and Lee (2008) point out that in our digital world we need to expand our vision of pedagogy, so that learners become active participants and co-producers rather than passive consumers of content and learning processes are participatory and social, supportive of personal life goals and needs. To address the changing needs in the digital age Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes and Garrison (2013), for example, updated the Chickering and Gamson principles that have guided educational practice in higher education over the last two decades. The updated seven principles are about creation of open communication and trust, critical reflection and discourse, establishing community and cohesion, inquiry dynamics, sustaining respect and responsibility, inquiry that moves to resolution and ensuring that assessment is congruent with intended processes and outcomes.
Bates, T. (2015). Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning. http://teachonline.ca/sites/default/files/pdfs/teaching-in-a-digital-age_2016.pdf Accessed 20 November 2016
Bates, T (2016). The 10 Fundamentals of Teaching Online for Faculty and Instructors. Accessed 20 November 2016.
McLoughlin,C., Mark J. W., & Lee, M.J.W (2008). The Three P’s of Pedagogy for the Networked Society: Personalization, Participation, and Productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 10-27. Accessed 20 November 2016.
Vaughan, N. D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Garrison, D. R. (2013). Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry. Edmonton: AU Press. Accessed 20 November 2016.